Research has been done on the ability of avian pain perception. It has been established that birds can feel pain in shorter time than most other animals. The distribution of NPY-ir in the brain is similar to that in mammals. NPY-ir cells were detected in the nucleus accumbens (Acb), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), central gray (CG), diagonal band of Broca (DBB), dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH), medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular zone of the optic tectum (TeO), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), anterior commissure (Cg), septal nuclei (SN), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and ventral tegmental area (VTA). The expression of NPY-ir in the Acb, BST, and CG was found to be high by the end of the breeding season, during the regressive season. This was also found in the DMH, PVN, TeO and VMN. NPY-ir (NPY-labeling immunoreactive) cell bodies were detected in SQN during the breeding season but not during the regressed season. NPY is an important neurotransmitter present in the brain cells of our vertebrate bodies. Its neuronal activity controls many functions, including food intake, aggression, anxiety, sexual activity, and social interaction, i.e., all instinctive features of the living.
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